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Super Carnosine

Antiglycation and Anti-Aging Health Supplement

Suggested Retail Price:$44.95
Your Price:$33.71

Why do older people and animals look different than young ones? Science tells us this
has to do with changes in the proteins of the body as we age.


Our body is made up largely of proteins. Because the body’s antioxidant system and other lines of defense cannot completely protect proteins, they tend to undergo destructive changes as we age. This is due to processes known as oxidation, carbonylation, crosslinking, glycation, and Advance Glycation End Products (AGE) formation (Hipkiss et al. 1998)( Hipkiss and Brownson 2000) (Stadman 1992) (Bierhaus 1991) (Munch and Schinze and Loske 1991).

These processes not only figure prominently in the processes of aging, but also in its familiar signs such as skin aging, cataracts, and neurodegeneration (i.e. loss of memory and dementia).


A vast number of scientific studies show that carnosine is effective against all these forms of protein denaturation. In effect, carnosine reacts with the carbonyl group and forms an inert protein, carbonyl-carnosine adducts, thus protecting the proteins and reversing their denaturation.

Proteins are not the only molecules denatured by carbonylation. Phospholipids are also carbonylated. The
carbonylation of phospholipids causes damage particularly in the central and peripheral nervous system where it results in memory impairment and other deterioration of cognitive skill. In sports and body building carnosine is involved in the detoxification pathway, scavenging reactive aldehydes from lipid peroxidation generated in skeletal muscle during physical endurance (Aldini et al. 2002). Carnosine protects the skeletal muscle from injury, increases muscle strength and endurance, and speeds up recovery after strenuous exercise.

Glycosylation (Glycation)
During normal aging, pathological alternations occur as proteins react with sugars. This same type of crosslinking of sugars and proteins occurs when a chicken browns in the oven. This destructive process (glycation) occurs throughout the body. As protein molecules are bound to glucose molecules, the result is the formation of damaged nonfunctioning structures. This decreases biological activity. The excessive accumulation of these glycated structures is called Advanced Glycation End products (AGE) and they are associated with many aging problems.

AGEs cling to cellular binding sites, triggering a cascade of destructive events. One of the consequences of
AGEs is a 50-fold increase in free radical formation. Diabetes, a condition of accelerated aging, spawns a harvestof AGEs the arteries. The lens and the retina of the eye, peripheral nerves, and the kidneys are also under specific attack. By opposing glycation, glomerular damage and the resulting inflammation and renal
degeneration is reduced (Forbes et al. 2001).

A multitude of published research studies show that the proper dose of carnosine, an amino acid intermediate, is the safest and most effective method of inhibiting glycation.

What is Carnosine?
L-carnosine is a dipeptide composed of the amino acids beta-alanine, and L-histidine. It is found in the brain,
heart, muscle, skin, skeletal muscles, kidneys, and stomach (Quinn et al. 1992)(Bondanti et al. 1999). Lcarnosine is naturally produced in the body by the enzyme carnosine synthetase. Carnosine levels decline with age and there is a correlation between muscle levels of carnosine and the maximum life spans of animal species. Stress and trauma also contribute to a reduction in carnosine levels. Research has shown that carnosine protects and extends the functional life of the body’s key building blocks: cells, proteins, DNA, and lipids.

How Much Do I Use?
In order to derive carnosine’s multiple benefits, it is critical to consume enough carnosine to saturate the carnosine enzyme, makeing free carnosine available to the rest of the body. The suggested amount is 500 to 1,000 mg daily, taken in divided doses. One 500 mg. capsule should be taken with water or juice on an empty stomach or as directed by your qualified health consultant. An additional capsule may be taken at any time throughout the day. CAUTION: Carnosine is not recommended for use during pregnancy or lactation.

Other reported benefits
Carnosine has been shown to be beneficial for its ability to:
• Boost immunity and reduce inflammation.
• Exert anti-cancer effects.
• Promote wound healing, protect against radiation damage, and reverse post-radiation syndrome. Laboratory animals treated with carnosine were found to have faster and better wound healing rates compared to controls. This may have potential application to treating burns, wounds, following surgery, or during nutritional preparation for surgery (Hipkiss et al. 1998).
• Protect against the formation of gastric ulcers and help heal existing ulcers (Nishiwaki, et al.wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww 1999)(Arakawa, et al. 1990).
• Help eradicate Helicobacter pylori, an organism that has been linked to peptic ulcer and stomach
cancer (Kishimura, et al. 1998).
• Reduce or completely prevents cell damage caused by beta amyloid, the substance found in the brain
of Alzheimer’s patients (Preston et al. 1998).
• Help protect against cataract formation (Smart Publications).
• Protect against the effect of glucose damage and protein oxidation (Smart Publications).
• Inhibit or reverse glycosylation and, therefore, slow the damaging and pro-aging effects of carbohydrate
consumption (Smart Publications).
• Improve facial appearance, muscular stamina, and general well being (Kyriazis 2003).
• Buffer copper and zinc toxicity in the brain. Copper and zinc are released during normal synaptic activity. However, in the presence of a mildly acidic environment, a characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease, they reduce to their ionic forms and become toxic to the nervous system (Trombley et al. 1996). Carnosine has Antioxidant Properties:
• As a potent antioxidant, carnosine stabilizes and protects cell membranes by quenching the most destructive of free radicals, the hydroxyl radical, the super oxide, singlet oxygen, and the peroxyl radical.
• Carnosine prevents lipid peroxidation with the cell membrane and is believed to be the water-soluble counterpart to vitamin E in protecting cell membranes from oxidative damage (Tarnha et al. 1991).
• Carnosine acts with other biological antioxidants, i.e. vitamin E, vitamin C, zinc, and selenium, sparing their consumption in the tissues.
• Carnosine has been shown to block a highly reactive end product of lipid peroxidation called malondialdegyde (MDA) (Hipkiss et al. 1998).
If left unchecked, MDA can cause damage to lipids, enzymes, and DNA, and contribute to atherosclerosis, joint inflammation, cataract formation, and aging in general.
Aldini, G., Carni, M., Bereha, G., et al., 2002. Carnosine is a quencher of 4-hydroxyl-nonenal through what mechanism of reaction? Biochem Biophys Res Communi 298(5):699-706 (Pub Med). Arakawa T, Satoh H, Nakamura A, et. al., Effects of zinc L-carnosine on gastric mucosal and cell damage caused by ethanol in
rates. Correlation with endogenous prostaglandin E2. Dig Dis Sci 1990;35:559-66. Bierhaus, A., Hofman, M.A., Ziegler, R., et al., 1998. AGEs and their interaction with AGE-receptors in vascular disease and diabetes mellitus. I. The AGE concept. Cardiovascular Research 37(3):586-600. Boldyrev, A.A., Gallant, S.C., 1999. Sukhich, G.T., 1999. Carnosine, the protective, anti-aging peptide. Biosci Rep (Dec)19(6):581-7. Bonfanti L., Peretto P., De Marchis, S., Fasolo, A., 1999. Carnosine related dipeptides in the mammalian brain. Prog Neurobiol 59:333-53. Forbes, Josephine M., et al., 2004. Advanced Glycation End Products Interventions Reduce Diabetes—Accelerated Artherosclerosis. Baker Medical Research Unit, Melbourne, Australia. Hipkiss A., et al., 1998. Protective effects of carnosine against protein modification m by nialondialdchde and hypochlorite. Bioch Biophys Acta 1380; 46-54. Hipkiss, A. et al., 1997. Protective effects of carnosine against MDA-induced toxicity towards cultured rate brain endothelial cells. Neuroscience Letters 135-138. Hipkiss A.R., Brownson, C., 2000. A possible new role for the anti-aging peptide carnosine cell. Mol Life Sci 57(5):747-53. Ilipkiss, A., et al. 1998. Protective effects of carnosine against protein modification m by nialondialdchyde and hypochlorite. Bioch Biophys Acta 1380;46-54. Kashimura, H, Suzuki, K., Hassan, M., et al., 1999. Polaprezinc, a mucosal protective agent, combination with lansoprazole, amoxycillin and clarithromycin increases the cure rate Helicobacter pylori infection. Aliment Pharmcol Ther 13:483-7. Kyriazis M, 2003. Carnosine and Other Elixirs of Youth, The Miraculous Anti-Aging Supplement. Watkins Pub
Ltd.(Jan):ISBN:1842930494. Munch, G., Schinzel, R., Loske, C., et al., 1998. Alzheimer’s disease—synergetic effects of glucose deficit, oxidative stress, and advanced glycation end products. Journal of Ne transmission 105(4-5):439-61. Nishiwaki H, Kato S, Sugamoto S, et. al., Ulcerogenic and healing impairing actions monochloramine in rats stomachs: Effects of zinc L-carnosine, polaprezinc. J Physiol Pharmacol 1999;50:183-95. Preston, J., et al., 1998. Toxic effects of B-amyloid on immortalized rat brain endothelial protection by carnosine, homocarnosine and B-alanine. Neuroscience letter242 105-108. Price, D.L., Rhett, P.M., Thorpe, S.R., et al., 2001.Chelating activity of advanced glycation end products inhibitors. J Biol Chem 276(52);48, 967-72. Quinn, P.J., Boldyrev, A.A., Formazuyk, V.E., 1992. Carnosine: its properties, functions and potential therapeutic applications. Mol Aspects Med 13:379-444.

References

Autistic Spectrum Disorder Autistic Spectrum Disorder
A double blind placebo controlled study using carnosine found improvement in several areas including, behavior, socialization, and communication. For a complete study see website: http://autismcoach.com/ carnosineresults.htm

Carnosine slows down aging in animals
In one study done on laboratory animals, carnosine was shown to slow the development of aging in “senescence accelerated” animals (animals bred for rapid aging) when added to their diet. These effects were seen not only on lifespan, but also on behavioral changes and physical deterioration (Boldyrev et al. 1999).

L-Carnosine reduces telomere damage and shortening rate
A telomere is a repetitive DNA sequence at the end of chromosomes which shortens progressively with cell division. L-carnosine was reported to delay the replicative senescence and extend the lifespan of cultured human diploid fibroblast (Shao and Li and TAN 2004).

Late passage cells in normal medium are rejuvenated when transferred to medium containing carnosine and become senescent when carnosine is removed.

*The statements in this publication have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug
Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

Shao, L., Li, Q.H., Tan, W; 2004. L-carnosine reduces telomere damage and shortening rate in cultured normal fibroblasts. BioChem Biophys Res Commun (Nov) 12:324(2):931-6.
Smart Publication, POB 4667, Petaluma, CA, USA.
Stadtman, E.R., 1992. Protein oxidation and aging. Science 257(5074):1220-4.
Stuereburg H.J., Kunze K., 1999. Concentrations of free carnosine (a putative membrance protective antioxidant) in human
muscle biopsies and rate muscles. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatircs 29: 107-113.
Tarnha, M., et al., 1999. Hydroxyl radical scavenging by carnosine and Cu(ii)-carm)sine complexes. Int J Radial Biol 75(9):1 177-1188.
Trombley, P.Q., Horning, M.S., Blakemore, L.J., 2000. Interactions between carnosine and zinc and copper: implications for neuromodulation and neuroprotection. Biochemistry (Mosc) (Jul) 65(7):807-16. Review (PubMed).
Further suggested reading: Biochemistry (Moscow), 65 (2000), Number 7.
Special Issue: Biological Role of Carnosine in the Function of Excitable Tissues.

Information contained in this bulletin is for informational and educational purposes only and is not intended as a substitute for advise from your physician. This information should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any health problem. You should consult with a health care professional for treatment of any health issue.

©2005 New Spirit Naturals, Inc.